Template:Infobox US Supreme Court case/doc

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Assistance[edit source]

If you find yourself confused in how to use this template or need assistance, please feel free to leave comments on the talk page.

Usage[edit source]

This template aims to standardize U.S. Supreme Court cases. It's a very versatile template that includes features such as: argue dates that are automatically formatted correctly, citations that include a link to the text of the case, and accurate court membership with a much lower chance of error.

For a detailed description of this template's usage, see below. For information about commonly inserted information, refer to this guide. The template is part of WikiProject U.S. Supreme Court cases.

Parameters[edit source]

Parameter names shown opposite in italics indicate parameters that form external links.

Optional parameters

Most parameters in this template are optional. Leaving parameters such as ReargueDate, Concurrence5, or Overruled blank is OK and will not change or alter anything in the template. Parameters such as Majority, JoinMajority, etc. are all optional. Any fields that need to be added can be done so easily – either add the code if you feel comfortable doing so, or contact me and I will add the fields you need.

Commonly needed Uncommonly needed
{{Infobox SCOTUS case
  |Litigants=
  |ArgueDate=
  |ArgueYear=
  |DecideDate=
  |DecideYear=
  |FullName=
  |USVol=
  |USPage=
  |ParallelCitations=

  |Docket=XX-XXX

  |OralArgument=http://www.oyez.org/cases/YYYY-YYYY/YYYY/YY-Docket/argument/
  |OralReargument=http://www.oyez.org/cases/YYYY-YYYY/YYYY/YY-Docket/reargument/
  |OpinionAnnouncement=http://www.oyez.org/cases/YYYY-YYYY/YYYY/YY-Docket/opinion/

  |Prior=
  |Subsequent=
  |Holding=
  |Majority=
  |JoinMajority=
  |Concurrence=
  |JoinConcurrence=
  |Concurrence2=
  |JoinConcurrence2=
  |Concurrence/Dissent=
  |JoinConcurrence/Dissent=
  |Dissent=
  |JoinDissent=
  |Dissent2=
  |JoinDissent2=
  |LawsApplied=
}}
{{Infobox SCOTUS case
  |Litigants=
  |Litigants2=
  |Litigants3=
  |Litigants4=
  |Litigants5=
  |ArgueDate=
  |ArgueDateA=
  |ArgueDateB=
  |ArgueYear=
  |ReargueDate=
  |ReargueDate2=
  |ReargueDateA=
  |ReargueDateB=
  |ReargueDateA2=
  |ReargueDateB2=
  |ReargueYear=
  |ReargueYear2=
  |SubmitDate=
  |SubmitYear=
  |DecideDate=
  |DecideYear=
  |FullName=
  |Docket=
  |Docket2=
  |Docket3=
  |Docket4=
  |Docket5=
  |OralArgument=
  |ParallelCitations=
  |USVol=
  |USPage=
  |Claim=
  |Prior=
  |Procedural=
  |Subsequent=
  |QuestionsPresented=
  |Holding=
  |PerCuriam=yes
  |Majority=
  |JoinMajority=
  |Majority2=
  |JoinMajority2=
  |Majority3=
  |JoinMajority3=
  |Plurality=
  |JoinPlurality=
  |Concurrence=
  |JoinConcurrence=
  |Concurrence2=
  |JoinConcurrence2=
  |Concurrence3=
  |JoinConcurrence3=
  |Concurrence4=
  |JoinConcurrence4=
  |Concurrence5=
  |JoinConcurrence5=
  |Concurrence/Dissent=
  |JoinConcurrence/Dissent=
  |Concurrence/Dissent2=
  |JoinConcurrence/Dissent2=
  |Concurrence/Dissent3=
  |JoinConcurrence/Dissent3=
  |Concurrence/Dissent4=
  |JoinConcurrence/Dissent4=
  |Concurrence/Dissent5=
  |JoinConcurrence/Dissent5=
  |Dissent=
  |JoinDissent=
  |Dissent2=
  |JoinDissent2=
  |Dissent3=
  |JoinDissent3=
  |Dissent4=
  |JoinDissent4=
  |NotParticipating=
  |Seriatim=
  |Seriatim2=
  |Seriatim3=
  |Seriatim4=
  |Seriatim5=
  |LawsApplied=
  |Superseded=
  |Overruled=
  |Overturned previous case=
}}

Argue dates[edit source]

Most cases will only need to use ArgueDate, ArgueYear, DecideDate, and DecideYear. Only cases that have more than one argue date need to use ArgueDateA and ArgueDateB. ReargueDate and ReargueYear should only be used if there was a reargue date.

Citations[edit source]

USVol and USPage[edit source]

Cases should be cited using the U.S. Reports volume and page number in the USVol and USPage fields, respectively. If the case does not yet have a page assigned, use "|USPage=___" (three underscores).

ParallelCitations[edit source]

The ParallelCitations field is for additional (parallel) citations for the same case (e.g. "|ParallelCitations=111 S. Ct. 1282; 113 L. Ed. 2d 358").

Docket[edit source]

For newer cases (those decided after 2000 or so), you should enter the Supreme Court docket number in the Docket field (e.g. "|Docket=06-1234").

Prior history[edit source]

This field can contain citations to prior decisions in the case, in trial court or lower appellate courts, or prior decisions by the subject court; these should be preceded by a two to four word description of the ruling—this (together with the subsequent history, following) is merely the bare bones procedural history of the case—what happened when at what court. Please use the citation only for the preferred court reporter (not all parallel citations) to reduce length. If unreported (as with most criminal convictions, for example), list the ruling, the court, and the date.

Subsequent history[edit source]

This field can contain citations to or general descriptions of subsequent decisions by lower courts after a remand or vacation, or by the same court, as in a denial of rehearing, or continuing proceedings in a trial court.

Questions Presented[edit source]

A brief summary of the questions that were presented to the Supreme Court in the case's petition. These are typically listed in numerical order in the petition to the court in the case docket. This field should be filled in while the case is in progress, but must be removed after the decision is issued, as the presence of this field precludes several of the decision-related fields from appearing.

Holding[edit source]

A very brief (one or two sentence) description of what the central ruling of the case was. This may or may not be fact-specific, depending on how broadly the court's opinion was worded; follow with a short statement of what the specific outcome of the case was.

Court membership[edit source]

The court membership is determined by the DecideDate and DecideYear parameters. These lists of justices can be edited at Template:Infobox SCOTUS case/courts or its sandbox page.

Case opinions[edit source]

All the written opinions handed down in the case are listed in the following categories of majority, concurrent, etc. Always follow the designations used in the reported decision.

List all justices under these headings only by their last name, as their full names are already given above in the court membership section.

Note: If a judge recused or was otherwise absent, use the NotParticipating field to document that.

Majority[edit source]

The justice who authored the majority opinion.

Joined by[edit source]

The justices who joined in the majority/plurality opinion. Early cases (18th – mid-19th century) may not list who has joined in the majority—unless they are listed as the author of a separate concurrence or dissent, or as joining such a separate opinion, list them as joining the majority.[clarification needed] If the decision was unanimous, simply say that it was joined by a "unanimous court" rather than relisting every judge.

Concurrences, concurrence/dissents, dissents[edit source]

List all concurrences, followed by concurrence/dissents, followed by dissents. Within each grouping, try to order the opinions by the seniority of the authoring justice, with the chief justice always considered the most senior regardless of actual length of tenure.

Concurrence/dissent[edit source]

These will usually be labeled in the original opinion as "concurring in part and dissenting in part". Follow these designations, because from the text of the opinion alone it is sometimes difficult to tell concurrences from dissents from partial concurrences/partial dissents.

Laws applied[edit source]

These are citations to the constitutional and statutory provisions that were the primary basis for the decision only. They do NOT include case law, nor every law that happens to be cited in the case or that is rejected as inapplicable with minimal discussion.

Manual of Style[edit source]

This is a proposed manual of style. Its contents are based on the infoboxes found in various case articles, but notably the styles used in the three featured-article cases: Dred Scott v. Sandford, Roe v. Wade, and Lawrence v. Texas. This manual attempts to add consistency throughout all of the case articles. This manual's aim is to focus on the style that is currently widely used throughout United States Supreme Court cases. It is in no way a final draft, or set in stone. Changes should be made to it, and then implemented in the different articles.

The manual follows the template's layout. All parameter names are in bold (e.g. Litigants). Cases inside a single set of brackets [ ] are examples where a certain item can be seen "in action."

General notes[edit source]

Formatting is done automatically. There is no need to use wiki markup ('' or ''') or HTML (<b> or <i>) for most parameters. Exceptions are: Prior, Subsequent, Superseded, Overruled, and Overturned previous case.

Litigants[edit source]

In almost all cases, Litigants will be the same as the name of the article, often also known as the short name of the case found at the top of the printed pages of the case [Dred Scott v. Sandford].

Argue date[edit source]

Most cases will simply need to use ArgueDate and ArgueYear. If the case was argued over more than one day, ArgueDateA and ArgueDateB can be employed. Unless the argue dates span over more than one month, the month's name should only be used once [Eisenstadt v. Baird]. If a case was reargued, the same style should be used [Champion v. Ames]. Also, the full name of the month should always be used.

Older cases may not list an argue date. Thorough research can generally produce one, but if a date can not be found, leave the parameters blank. Other old cases will have a submitted date; in these instances, use SubmitDate and SubmitYear [Nix v. Hedden].

Decide date[edit source]

There is only ever one DecideDate and DecideYear.

Full name[edit source]

The full case name should try to include the first and last names of all parties and whatever other information is included in the full name of the case [Bowers v. Hardwick]. For example, Michael J. Bowers, Attorney General of Georgia v. Michael Hardwick, et al. If that information cannot be found, using a shorter name of the case is permissible.

Any time "et al." is used, there should always be a comma preceding it.

Volume and page[edit source]

USVol and USPage are the United States Reports volume number and starting page on which the case was reported.

Docket number[edit source]

Newer cases should use Docket (e.g. "|Docket=05-184") [Hamdan v. Rumsfeld].

Citations[edit source]

The U.S. Reports citation will be generated automatically from the USVol and USPage fields. Most cases should include additional citations such as the Supreme Court Reporter (S. Ct.) in the ParallelCitations field. You should not begin this field with anything other than the next citation; a semicolon or another space is redundant [Loving v. Virginia]. Each citation should be separated by a semicolon and a single space, never any other type of punctuation (e.g. "|ParallelCitations=87 S. Ct. 1817; 18 L. Ed. 2d 1010; 1967 U.S. LEXIS 1082").

Newer cases that have yet to be assigned a specific volume and page should use "|USPage=___" (three underscores). The correct volume that a case will be in when it's assigned its page can be found on the Supreme Court's website; it will be on top of every odd-numbered page of the PDF slip opinion except the first. Other citations will be available and should be separated by a semi-colon and a single space [eBay Inc. v. MercExchange, L.L.C.].

Prior history[edit source]

Prior is the most lenient field. The information here should be whatever you can gather. Sometimes that will be only a short statement [Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha] or may be more in-depth [Roe v. Wade]. All formatting here must be added by the user. Prior should never end in a period, comma, or semi-colon. An exception can be made if a period is used as part of an abbreviation.

Subsequent history[edit source]

Subsequent is optional. Newer cases most likely won't have a subsequent history. Older cases may never have gone any further after being decided by the Supreme Court. A simple "None" can be used in this instance.[clarification needed] Once again, Subsequent should never end in a period, comma, or semi-colon. An exception can be made if a period is used as part of an abbreviation and all formatting here must be added by the user.

Holding[edit source]

Holding consists of a few sentences describing the Court's ruling. It should be concise and it should always end in a period.

Case opinions[edit source]

Laws applied[edit source]

Previous cases[edit source]

Superseded[edit source]

Superseded is used when a later case partially changes the ruling in an earlier case. For example, the case of Ring v. Arizona superseded Walton v. Arizona, as it partially overruled the previous case. The earlier case gets the |Superseded= parameter set to the italicized, wikilinked named of the later case (as if the parameter were actually named "Superseded by", which is the heading that appears in the Infobox).

For example, in Walton v. Arizona, we set |Superseded=''[[Ring v. Arizona]]'' .

Note: There is currently no equivalent "Supersedes" parameter to be set in the later article.

Overruled[edit source]

Overruled may be used where a later case changes the findings in an earlier one. As noted above in the Ring case, it also overruled Spaziano v. Florida. The earlier case gets the |Overruled= parameter set to the italicized, wikilinked named of the later case (as if the parameter were actually named "Overruled by", which is the heading that appears in the Infobox).

For example, in Spaziano v. Florida, we set |Overruled=''[[Ring v. Arizona]]'' .

Note: There is currently no equivalent "Overrules" parameter to be set in the later article.

Overturned previous case[edit source]

If the holding of a case is completely changed by a later case, the original case is said to be overturned. Unlike |Overrules= and |Supersedes=, in the later case article, the |Overturned previous case= parameter should be set to the value of the earlier case, including italicizing and wikilinking markup (as if the parameter were actually named "Overturns").

For example, the Supreme Court overturned a prior case when it announced in Lawrence v. Texas that it had been wrong in deciding the original case of Bowers v. Hardwick. In the Lawrence v. Texas article, we set |Overturned previous case=''[[Bowers v. Hardwick]]''.

Note: There is currently no equivalent "Overturned by" parameter to be set in the earlier article.

Tracking categories[edit source]

Template data[edit source]

This is the TemplateData documentation for this template used by VisualEditor and other tools; see the monthly parameter usage report for this template.

TemplateData for Infobox US Supreme Court case

<templatedata> { "params": { "italic title": {}, "Litigants": { "suggested": true, "required": true }, "Litigants2": {}, "Litigants3": {}, "Litigants4": {}, "Litigants5": {}, "Outcome": {}, "SubmitDate": { "label": "Date submitted" }, "SubmitYear": { "label": "Year submitted" }, "ArgueDate": { "suggested": true, "label": "Date argued", "example": "January 1" }, "ArgueDateB": {}, "ArgueDateC": {}, "ArgueYear": { "suggested": true, "label": "Year argued", "example": "1970" }, "ArgueDateA": {}, "ReargueDate": { "label": "Date reargued" }, "ReargueYear": { "label": "Year reargued" }, "ReargueDateA": {}, "ReargueDateB": {}, "ReargueDate2": {}, "ReargueYear2": {}, "ReargueDateA2": {}, "ReargueDateB2": {}, "DecideDate": { "suggested": true, "label": "Date decided", "example": "January 1" }, "DecideYear": { "suggested": true, "label": "Year decided", "example": "1970" }, "FullName": { "suggested": true, "label": "Full case name" }, "Docket": { "suggested": true, "label": "Docket number", "description": "Supreme Court docket number for newer cases (those decided after 2000 or so)" }, "Docket2": {}, "Docket3": {}, "Docket4": {}, "Docket5": {}, "USVol": { "suggested": true, "label": "United States Reports volume number" }, "USPage": { "suggested": true, "label": "United States Reports page number" }, "ParallelCitations": { "suggested": true, "label": "Parallel citations" }, "Citation": {}, "Claim": {}, "Prior": { "suggested": true }, "Procedural": {}, "Subsequent": { "suggested": true, "label": "Subsequent history" }, "Related": {}, "OralArgument": { "suggested": true, "label": "Oral argument URL", "example": "http://www.oyez.org/cases/YYYY-YYYY/YYYY/YY-Docket/argument/" }, "OralArguments": {}, "OralReargument": { "suggested": true, "label": "Oral reargument URL", "example": "http://www.oyez.org/cases/YYYY-YYYY/YYYY/YY-Docket/reargument/" }, "OpinionAnnouncement": { "suggested": true, "label": "Opinion announcement URL", "example": "http://www.oyez.org/cases/YYYY-YYYY/YYYY/YY-Docket/opinion/" }, "QuestionsPresented": { "label": "Questions presented" }, "Holding": { "suggested": true }, "SCOTUS": { "suggested": true, "label": "Court membership", "example": "2010-2016", "description": "The date range uniquely describing the court's composition" }, "category": {}, "Majority": { "suggested": true, "label": "Majority opinion by", "description": "The justice who authored the majority opinion." }, "Plurality": { "label": "Plurality by" }, "PerCuriam": {}, "Dissent": { "suggested": true, "label": "Dissent by" }, "JoinMajority": { "suggested": true, "label": "Majority joined by" }, "Majority2": { "label": "Second majority by" }, "JoinMajority2": { "label": "Second majority joined by" }, "Majority3": { "label": "Third majority by" }, "JoinMajority3": { "label": "Third majority joined by" }, "JoinPlurality": { "label": "Plurality joined by" }, "Plurality2": { "label": "Second plurality by" }, "JoinPlurality2": { "label": "Second plurality joined by" }, "Plurality3": { "label": "Third plurality by" }, "JoinPlurality3": { "label": "Third plurality joined by" }, "Plurality4": { "label": "Fourth plurality by" }, "JoinPlurality4": { "label": "Fourth plurality joined by" }, "Seriatim": {}, "Seriatim2": {}, "Seriatim3": {}, "Seriatim4": {}, "Seriatim5": {}, "Concurrence": { "suggested": true }, "JoinConcurrence": { "suggested": true }, "Concurrence2": { "suggested": true }, "JoinConcurrence2": { "suggested": true }, "Concurrence3": {}, "JoinConcurrence3": {}, "Concurrence4": {}, "JoinConcurrence4": {}, "Concurrence5": {}, "JoinConcurrence5": {}, "Concurrence6": {}, "JoinConcurrence6": {}, "Concurrence7": {}, "JoinConcurrence7": {}, "Concurrence8": {}, "JoinConcurrence8": {}, "Concurrence/Dissent": { "suggested": true }, "JoinConcurrence/Dissent": { "suggested": true }, "Concurrence/Dissent2": {}, "JoinConcurrence/Dissent2": {}, "Concurrence/Dissent3": {}, "JoinConcurrence/Dissent3": {}, "Concurrence/Dissent4": {}, "JoinConcurrence/Dissent4": {}, "Concurrence/Dissent5": {}, "JoinConcurrence/Dissent5": {}, "JoinDissent": { "suggested": true, "label": "Dissent joined by" }, "Dissent2": { "suggested": true, "label": "Second dissent by" }, "JoinDissent2": { "suggested": true, "label": "Second dissent joined by" }, "Dissent3": { "label": "Third dissent by" }, "JoinDissent3": { "label": "Third dissent joined by" }, "Dissent4": { "label": "Fourth dissent by" }, "JoinDissent4": { "label": "Fourth dissent joined by" }, "Dissent5": { "label": "Fifth dissent" }, "JoinDissent5": { "label": "Fifth dissent joined by" }, "NotParticipating": { "label": "Justice not participating",

                       "description": "If one or more judges were on the court at the time the decision was rendered, yet did not participate in the case because of a recent appointment, recusal, or other absence, list them here."

}, "LawsApplied": { "suggested": true, "label": "Laws applied" }, "Superseded": {}, "Overruled": {}, "Overturned previous case": { "label": "Previous cases overturned" }, "Abrogated": {} }, "description": "Infobox for United States Supreme Court cases", "paramOrder": [ "Litigants", "Litigants2", "Litigants3", "Litigants4", "Litigants5", "ArgueDate", "ArgueDateA", "ArgueDateB", "ArgueDateC", "ArgueYear", "ReargueDate", "ReargueYear", "ReargueDate2", "ReargueYear2", "ReargueDateA", "ReargueDateA2", "ReargueDateB", "ReargueDateB2", "SubmitDate", "SubmitYear", "DecideDate", "DecideYear", "FullName", "USVol", "USPage", "ParallelCitations", "Docket", "Docket2", "Docket3", "Docket4", "Docket5", "OralArgument", "OralReargument", "OpinionAnnouncement", "Claim", "Prior", "Procedural", "Subsequent", "QuestionsPresented", "Holding", "SCOTUS", "PerCuriam", "Majority", "JoinMajority", "Majority2", "JoinMajority2", "Majority3", "JoinMajority3", "Plurality", "JoinPlurality", "Plurality2", "JoinPlurality2", "Plurality3", "JoinPlurality3", "Plurality4", "JoinPlurality4", "Concurrence", "JoinConcurrence", "Concurrence2", "JoinConcurrence2", "Concurrence3", "JoinConcurrence3", "Concurrence4", "JoinConcurrence4", "Concurrence5", "JoinConcurrence5", "Concurrence6", "JoinConcurrence6", "Concurrence7", "JoinConcurrence7", "Concurrence8", "JoinConcurrence8", "Concurrence/Dissent", "JoinConcurrence/Dissent", "OralArguments", "Concurrence/Dissent2", "JoinConcurrence/Dissent2", "Concurrence/Dissent3", "JoinConcurrence/Dissent3", "Concurrence/Dissent4", "JoinConcurrence/Dissent4", "Concurrence/Dissent5", "JoinConcurrence/Dissent5", "Dissent", "JoinDissent", "Dissent2", "JoinDissent2", "Dissent3", "JoinDissent3", "Dissent4", "JoinDissent4", "Dissent5", "JoinDissent5", "NotParticipating", "Seriatim", "Seriatim2", "Seriatim3", "Seriatim4", "Seriatim5", "LawsApplied", "Superseded", "Overruled", "Overturned previous case", "Abrogated", "italic title", "category", "Citation", "Outcome", "Related" ], "format": "block" } </templatedata>

Tracking categories[edit source]

See also[edit source]